Approaching improvisation from a modal perspective is another tool you
can harness to help you play through chord changes. In the same way that
Tin Pan Alley and Broadway show tunes from the 1940s with a
preponderance of ii-V progressions and modulations influenced the
development of bebop, the more relaxed modal music of 1960s jazz
brought about a new way to write melodies over chords that didn’t change
as often. For the most part, any jazz composition where there’s a
particularly spacious approach to chord changes—as well as songs
that are very diatonic without a lot of modulations—can be approached
modally. Miles Davis approached modal playing in a more “cool” and
detached manner as compared to John Coltrane, who explored it with great
intensity. The modal movement of the 1960s left a lasting impression
that is still felt in jazz, R&B and pop music today.
1. Modal Improv Basics
Modal improvisation involves the relationship between chords and scales. The mode that applies to the Cmaj7 chord is a major scale, and is known as the Ionian mode. If you start a scale from D in the same key signature, you’ll get what’s known as the Dorian mode, as seen in Ex. 1. As you can see, the Dorian mode has a flat third and flat seventh.
2. Modal Improv Patterns
Let’s put these modes to work by building patterns to improvise with. Ex. 2a is a basic pattern based on the Ionian mode.
Ex. 2b is the same pattern written out for the C Dorian mode, which would fit over a Cmin7 or Cmin9 chord.
Ex. 2c is a very similar pattern with a different
rhythmic approach. Remember that rhythm is key when it comes to the
patterns you choose to play.
Try this one in the Dorian mode as well. Ex. 2d is a similar pattern in F Dorian. Make sure to practice these patterns in all 12 keys.
3. Melodic Modal Patterns
Ex. 3a is a pattern in the C Ionian mode that’s more melodic and less scalar.
Ex. 3b is a similar one in C Dorian.
4. Scalar Modal Patterns
Ex. 4a is a D Dorian scalar pattern in thirds that works great over a Dmin9 chord. Ex.
4b is a variation of it.
5. Modes on the Move
The written-out solo in Ex. 5 shows how modal
patterns can work even in a song with a lot of changes. A modal solo
works here because your ear connects the tonality of the mode with the
basic F# minor tonality in that section of the song.
One, Two, Three: “Combining modal techniques with pentatonic and ii-V-I
patterns arms you with three effective improvisational approaches that
will aid in building interesting and musical solos,” says acclaimed
jazz-fusion keyboardist, composer and producer Jeff Lorber. Jeff’s latest release is Galaxy. Find-out more at lorber.com.